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This family of proteins corresponds to mitochondrial ribosomal subunit S27 in prokaryotes  and to subunit S33 in humans . It is a small 106 residue protein.The evolutionary history of the mitoribosomal proteome that is encoded by a diverse subset of eukaryotic genomes, reveals an ancestral ribosome of alpha-proteobacterial descent that more than doubled its protein content in most eukaryotic lineages. Several new MRPs have originated via duplication of existing MRPs as well as by recruitment from outside of the mitoribosomal proteome .
Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. The codons of the mRNA are exposed on the ribosome to allow tRNA binding. This leads to the incorporation of amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain in accordance with the genetic information. Incoming amino acid monomers enter the ribosomal A site in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs complexed with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. The growing polypeptide chain, situated in the P site as peptidyl-tRNA, is then transferred to aminoacyl-tRNA and the new peptidyl-tRNA, extended by one residue, is translocated to the P site with the aid the elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP as the deacylated tRNA is released from the ribosome through one or more exit sites [PUBMED:11297922, PUBMED:11290319]. About 2/3 of the mass of the ribosome consists of RNA and 1/3 of protein. The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to L44). Usually they decorate the rRNA cores of the subunits.
Saveanu C, Fromont-Racine M, Harington A, Ricard F, Namane A, Jacquier A; , J Biol Chem 2001;276:15861-15867.: Identification of 12 new yeast mitochondrial ribosomal proteins including 6 that have no prokaryotic homologues. PUBMED:11278769 EPMC:11278769 .
Koc EC, Burkhart W, Blackburn K, Koc H, Moseley A, Spremulli LL; , Protein Sci. 2001;10:471-481.: Identification of four proteins from the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome using a proteomics approach. PUBMED:11344316 EPMC:11344316 .
Smits P, Smeitink JA, van den Heuvel LP, Huynen MA, Ettema TJ; , Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4686-4703.: Reconstructing the evolution of the mitochondrial ribosomal proteome. PUBMED:17604309 EPMC:17604309.