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This entry is represented by a mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit, which has similarity to human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRP-S36 [1, 2, 3].
Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. The codons of the mRNA are exposed on the ribosome to allow tRNA binding. This leads to the incorporation of amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain in accordance with the genetic information. Incoming amino acid monomers enter the ribosomal A site in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs complexed with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. The growing polypeptide chain, situated in the P site as peptidyl-tRNA, is then transferred to aminoacyl-tRNA and the new peptidyl-tRNA, extended by one residue, is translocated to the P site with the aid the elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP as the deacylated tRNA is released from the ribosome through one or more exit sites [PUBMED:11297922, PUBMED:11290319]. About 2/3 of the mass of the ribosome consists of RNA and 1/3 of protein. The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to L44). Usually they decorate the rRNA cores of the subunits.
Matsushita Y, Kitakawa M, Isono K;, Mol Gen Genet. 1989;219:119-124.: Cloning and analysis of the nuclear genes for two mitochondrial ribosomal proteins in yeast. PUBMED:2693936 EPMC:2693936 .
Graack HR, Wittmann-Liebold B; , Biochem J 1998;329:433-448.: Mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) of yeast. PUBMED:9445368 EPMC:9445368 .
Gan X, Kitakawa M, Yoshino KI, Oshiro N, Yonezawa K, Isono K; , Eur J Biochem 2002;269:5203-5214.: Tag-mediated isolation of yeast mitochondrial ribosome and mass spectrometric identification of its new components. PUBMED:12392552 EPMC:12392552.