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Elongation factor Tu consists of three structural domains, this is the second domain. This domain adopts a beta barrel structure. This the second domain is involved in binding to charged tRNA . This domain is also found in other proteins such as elongation factor G and translation initiation factor IF-2. This domain is structurally related to PF03143 and in fact has weak sequence matches to this domain.
Translation elongation factors are responsible for two main processes during protein synthesis on the ribosome [PUBMED:12762045, PUBMED:15922593, PUBMED:12932732]. EF1A (or EF-Tu) is responsible for the selection and binding of the cognate aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site (acceptor site) of the ribosome. EF2 (or EF-G) is responsible for the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site (peptidyl-tRNA site) of the ribosome, thereby freeing the A-site for the next aminoacyl-tRNA to bind. Elongation factors are responsible for achieving accuracy of translation and both EF1A and EF2 are remarkably conserved throughout evolution.
Nissen P, Kjeldgaard M, Thirup S, Polekhina G, Reshetnikova L, Clark BF, Nyborg J; , Science 1995;270:1464-1472.: Crystal structure of the ternary complex of Phe-tRNAPhe, EF-Tu, and a GTP analog. PUBMED:7491491 EPMC:7491491.